Blog Clinical Review Article HD Huntington's Disease RNA suppression

RNA suppression in animal models of HD, and the problems with its clinical translation | ACNR

RNA suppression in animal models of HD, and the problems with its clinical translation

Posted in Clinical Evaluate Article on sixth Might 2019

Kirsten Revell is an MSc Scholar learning Clinical Neuropsychiatry beneath Professor Hugh Rickards and Professor Andrea Cavanna at the College of Birmingham. She works in complicated care and with older adults. She accomplished her first undergraduate degree in Experimental Psychology at the University of Bristol. She has a suggestion to begin Graduate Drugs at the University of Warwick in September and has a specific curiosity in the genetics of neurological and psychiatric issues, in addition to a love of language and language phenomena in neuropathologies.

Correspondence to: Kirsten Revell, E: [email protected]
Conflict of curiosity assertion: None declared
Provenance and peer evaluate: Submitted and externally reviewed.
Date first submitted: 25/7/18
Date submitted after peer evaluation: 16/1/19
Acceptance date: 23/1/19
To cite: Revell Okay. ACNR 2019;18(three):On-line first
Revealed Online: 23/3/19

Huntington’s illness (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive, neurodegenerative dysfunction; mostly affecting adults.1 A mutant enlargement of a CAG repeat >36 copies on chromosome 4, coding for the Huntingtin protein (HTT), underlies numerous downstream mobile pathologies. Using murine models that carry the mHTT gene, anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASOs) have been recognized that may scale back the progression of signs in affected mice; one of which has now been translated into human trials. Many researchers keep that the large variation between human and murine genomes, behaviour and complexity signifies that remedies can’t be readily translated between the two species. Many similarities have been discovered between the nucleotide construction of murine and human HTT genes, allowing for both viable transgenic mice and translatable RNA therapies to be developed.

A mutant enlargement of a CAG repeat >36 copies on chromosome 4, coding for the irregular Huntingtin protein (HTT), results in numerous downstream cellular problems; culminating in cell demise including the striatal medium spiny neurons.2 Improvement of murine HD models has allowed for the investigation of RNA concentrating on remedies,three which have subsequently been the subject of each primate and human security trials. Use of these models has facilitated advances in the improvement of both allele non-specific and allele specific approaches to gene suppression, together with the first human trial.4 This evaluation discusses current RNA remedies in HD and the points that complicate their translation from animal models to human trials.

This evaluate is a abstract of current information and does not set out to consider efficacy of potential remedies, and subsequently the particular methodology of animal analysis shouldn’t be evaluated right here. Nevertheless, research using animal models of Huntingtin mRNA suppression with salient results for human software are outlined; adopted by an analysis of murine models of HD and the points each presents with translating remedy choices into people.

1. Technique

To supply trials for this literature assessment, Cochrane CENTRAL and Google Scholar have been independently accessed, and a computerised search was undertaken. Results have been processed in line with PRISMA tips.5

Table 1 describes the search protocol for RNA suppression and Table 2 describes the search protocol for animal models of HD.

2. Results

Search protocol for RNA suppression

Search protocol for animal models of HD

three. RNA Suppression

Desk three: Eligibility display for RNA suppression

The disease phenotype of HD is generated by toxic accumulation of mutant HTT (mHTT) in neurons including the medium spiny neurons of the striatum, as well as accompanying glial cells. This mutant protein has a faulty tertiary structure because of excessive replication (>36) of a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) sequence within exon 1 of the gene.2 Resulting from the autosomal dominant nature of HD, sufferers also have an unaffected allele which codes for wild-type HTT (wtHTT).

RNA suppression works by introducing brief strands of nucleotides that complement segments of mRNA coded for by a gene; binding to them and, via one of a number of mechanisms, preventing them from being translated into protein. These strands are referred to as antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Many issues might be treated utilizing SC or IV introduction of water-soluble oligonucleotides; using sugar backbones as a vector for transport into the cell.6 Oral administration of second era ASOs can also be attainable utilising permeation enhancers resembling sodium caprate, with acceptable resultant ranges of plasma bioavailability.7 Nevertheless, the resulting molecules are sometimes incapable of being transported throughout the blood brain barrier; so for HD, brief stranded oligonucleotides are injected instantly into the CSF of the affected subject the place they are taken up by neural cells.6

To review the potential use of ASOs in HD, murine models of HD have been used which have been first generated shortly after the gene was discovered in the mid-1990s. There are three primary varieties of murine HD homolog: Transgenic mice, knock-in mice and YAC/BAC mice.2 Transgenic mice carry two pure copies of murine wtHTT gene, in addition to the inserted copy of exon 1 of human mHTT gene on a random locus of their genome; thus producing each wtHTT and mHTT as well as displaying an HD phenotype.three Knock-in mice have the expanded CAG repeat inserted into their present murine HTT gene and so produce solely mHTT.three Lastly, YAC/BAC mice have the full human HTT gene launched into their cells by way of yeast or bacterial DNA and so, like transgenic mice, additionally produce both varieties of HTT.three

Historically, RNA suppression remedies have targeted on inhibiting both wtHTT and mHTT production using nucleotide sequences from exons on the 5’ end of resulting mRNA. Using phosphorothioate modified oligonucleotides that catalyse RNase degradation of HTT mRNA, this has been demonstrated to be effective in decreasing irregular signs in HD transgenic mice; not only during remedy but for an prolonged period after remaining administration of the ASO.8 Presently the ASO recognized by Kordasiewicz and colleagues is the solely HTT-suppressing drug to have accomplished stage 1 human trials and is at present being developed for greater part II clinical trials (please see section four for additional dialogue).
Nevertheless, wtHTT is important for regular neural improvement and health, together with in CREB (and subsequently BDNF) production, mitochondrial power conversion and other essential cell processes.9,10 Newer analysis has subsequently targeted on identifying potential ASOs which are allele particular to mHTT.11

Gagnon et al (2010)12, Skotte et al (2014),13 Rue et al (2016)14 and Datson et al (2017)15 all recognized probably therapeutic, allele specific, locked nucleic acid-modified ASOs (LNA-ASO), concentrating on the mutant size CAG repeats in mHTT mRNA; while sparing each wtHTT and other CAG repeat-containing genes in transgenic mice. These ASOs additionally didn’t catalyse RNase and furthermore multiple ASO strands labored in conjunction on very giant CAG repeats, indicating disruption of translation as the mechanism of action.12,14 Likewise; Carroll et al13 identified LNA-ASOs succesful of selectively binding to SNPs on segments of mHTT mRNA in YAC/BAC mice. In each case, administration displayed advantages in terms of the development of indicators in these transgenic, knock-in or YAC/BAC mice.

Miniarikova et al (2016)16 created 4 expression cassette-optimised artificial microRNAs (miRNA) concentrating on human HTT exon 1 (miH), the expanded CAG repeats (miCAG), C or T isoform of SNP rs362331 in exon 50 (miSNP50C and miSNP50T) and the T isoform of SNP rs362307 in exon 67 extended to 3’UTR (miSNP67T). Full silencing of wtHTT and mHTT was achieved concentrating on exon 1 and miCAG. mHTT particular silencing was achieved concentrating on the heterozygous SNP rs362331 in exon 50 or rs362307 in exon 67.16

Solar et al (2014)17 identified a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO) capable of selectively suppressing mHTT mRNA. PMOs have the benefit of being a particularly secure, soluble and non-toxic sort of ASO. The research found CAG repeat-targeting PMOs, with one strand with the ability to suppress mHTT in both transgenic and knock-in mice.17

four. Translating animal HD models to humans

Eligibility screening for animal HD models

Every sort of murine HD model comes with its own points in phrases of how the outcomes from them may be translated to clinical studies.

Transgenic mice reminiscent of R6/1 and R6/2 generally tend to point out severe signs constant with an HD phenotype early in life.18 This enables for good comparability to juvenile HD as well as speedy screening of remedies for clinical results. Likewise, YAC mice show early mobile modifications reflecting these of human HD.19 While both varieties of mice show the attribute progressive phenotype, the problem remains that they do not characterize a direct genetic correspondent of human HTT production.3 The addition of human mHTT alleles, or segments thereof, into a random locus of the murine genome means HTT mRNA isn’t being produced by this gene in its pure locus. In R6/2 mice, the addition of the transgene causes a coincident deletion of the Gm12695 gene; causing expression of a partial fragment. Such expressions displayed by this model cause modifications in a variety of cell processes reminiscent of synaptic transmission and cell signalling.20 Nevertheless, we aren’t yet absolutely conscious of all linkage relationships with HTT and consequent protein manufacturing or downstream mediation in both mice or humans, which poses a probably major situation in phrases of efficacy and safety. In addition, the presence of the human HTT gene might intrude in a linkage method with the expression of other unrelated murine genes.2

Knock-in mice akin to HdhQ9221 or CAG140/15022 more intently resemble naturally occurring HD in humans, as segments of human mHTT gene are inserted into the present locus of the murine HTT gene. Because of this the mice display a genotype with one mHTT gene and one wtHTT gene, like most human subjects.23 Whilst this enables for a more pure improvement of cell pathology, behavioural correlates are less pronounced and variation in mortality is just not reliably useful as a measure for analysis trials.2,3

In a broader sense, many researchers keep that the large variation between human and murine genomes, behaviour and complexity signifies that remedies cannot be readily translated between the two species. Definitely, the effects of introducing a CAG repeat that’s for much longer than the one naturally occurring in mice doesn’t necessarily create the similar modifications seen in humans. In a single research, a rise in CAG repeat to a super-long measurement created a paradoxical improve in life expectancy of affected mice, immediately contradictory to the human phenotype.24 Nevertheless, whilst these are all legitimate criticisms, many similarities have been found between the nucleotide structure of murine and human HTT genes,25 permitting for translatable RNA strands to be developed.

Trials in more complicated animals, with genomes and characteristics that extra intently resemble humans, is important before human trials could be carried out however brings with it points of value and numbers of animals that can, and should, be handled pre-clinically.

Up to now, this has been attempted by means of the improvement of both ovine and porcine HD models. Transgenic sheep injected with full-length human mHTT gene containing 73 CAG repeats have proven expression of mHTT and abnormalities in medium spiny neurons. Nevertheless, these transgenic sheep show no overt phenotype at later levels of improvement.26

In pigs, trinucleotide repeat lengths extra intently resemble these of people; with CAG repeats of up to 21 identified in the porcine HTT allele.27 Minipigs have been recognized as an appropriate transgenic HD mannequin, as their physiology resembles that of people in several respects. They’ve a large brain appropriate for imaging and there’s 96% homology between porcine and human HTT genes. Just like ovine models, transgenic pigs have traditionally showed abnormalities of striatal buildings, but did not display any behavioural correlates or overt phenotype.28 Nevertheless, progress with porcine models has been made lately with a knock-in porcine HD model that shows constant abnormalities reflective of human HD.29 These pigs additionally present selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons and the included CAG repeat extension is germline transmissable. This model represents the most analogous mannequin of human HD in a large mammal up to now and supplies a promising platform for remedy trials.

Likewise, no naturally occurring HD homolog exists in non-human primates. At present, trials to determine the security of decreasing wtHTT in grownup primates (in line with the Kordasiewicz (2012) research)8 have been carried out and the influence of ASO discount of wtHTT was discovered to haven’t any hostile effects; with the exception of a short lived loss of knee reflexes in monkeys, which can be extra related with the mode of supply than the therapeutic agent itself.30 It might quickly be potential to emulate HD in non-human primates by way of one of two strategies: hyperexpression of mHTT activated by viral vectors (Ramaswamy et al., 2007),2 or using transgenic rhesus macaques carrying the mutant exon-1 of human IT15 (Yang et al., 2008).31

Whilst the remedy choice presently being studied in a human trial (IONIS HTTRx) developed from the findings of Kordasiewicz and colleagues (2012)10 supplies a promising choice for adults with HD, with no opposed reported events up to now, it’s lack of specificity for mHTT does imply it might need modifying or an alternate, allele particular ASO developed. This is notably true for juvenile HD, in which inhibition of wtHTT might have vital (and incompletely recognized) results for sufferers. Given this, one would predict that a give attention to allele particular PMOs or LNA-ASOs will ultimately take precedence in HD analysis. Genetic variability and additional understanding of the totally different genotypes and phenotypes of HD will inevitably provide avenues for remedy improvement, resembling that of Skotte and colleagues (2014);13 but in addition problems for creating mHTT specific ASOs effective in all HD variants.


RNA suppression works by means of the introduction of ASOs into the CSF that both inhibit HTT mRNA translation or catalyse HTT mRNA degradation. This process may be allele specific to mHTT mRNA, or non-specific affecting both mHTT and wtHTT manufacturing. Using murine models that carry the mHTT gene, ASOs have been identified which might be capable of scale back signs in affected mice; and one of these therapies has now been the subject of a clinical trial in patients with HD. Issues exist when translating findings from murine models to human patients. Work in primate and other giant animal models of HD might achieve higher prominence in the years to return; with promising models having emerged final yr.


1. Moore D, Puri, B. (2012). Textbook of clinical neuropsychiatry and behavioral neuroscience. Hodder Schooling. Retrieved from
2. Ramaswamy S, McBride JL, Kordower JH. Animal Models of Huntington’s Disease. ILAR Journal. 2007;48(4):356–373.
three. Ferrante RJ. Mouse models of Huntington’s disease and methodological issues for therapeutic trials. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease. 2009;1792(6):506–520.
four. Keiser MS, Kordasiewicz HB, McBride JL. Gene suppression strategies for dominantly inherited neurodegenerative illnesses: lessons from Huntington’s illness and spinocerebellar ataxia. Human Molecular Genetics. 2016;25(R1):R53-64.
5. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Most popular Reporting Gadgets for Systematic Evaluations and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Assertion. PLoS Drugs, 2009;6(7), e1000097.
6. Geary RS, Norris D, Yu R, Bennett CF. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and cell uptake of antisense oligonucleotides. Superior Drug Delivery Critiques. 2015;87:46–51.
7. Tillman LG, Geary RS, Hardee GE. Oral Supply of Antisense Oligonucleotides in Man. Pharmacists Affiliation J Pharm Sci. 2008;97:225–236.
8. Kordasiewicz HB, Stanek LM, Wancewicz EV, Mazur C, McAlonis MM, Pytel KA, Cleveland DW. Sustained Therapeutic Reversal of Huntington’s Disease by Transient Repression of Huntingtin Synthesis. Neuron. 2012;74(6):1031–1044.
9. White JK, Auerbach W, Duyao MP, Vonsattel JP, Gusella JF, Joyner AL, MacDonald ME. Huntingtin is required for neurogenesis and just isn’t impaired by the Huntington’s illness CAG enlargement. Nature Genetics. 1997;17(4):404–410.
10. Zuccato C. Loss of Huntingtin-Mediated BDNF Gene Transcription in Huntington’s Illness. Science. 2001;293(5529):493–498.
11. Carroll JB, Warby SC, Southwell AL, Doty CN, Greenlee S, Skotte N, Hayden MR. Potent and selective antisense oligonucleotides concentrating on single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Huntington illness gene / allele-specific silencing of mutant huntingtin. Molecular Remedy : The Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 2011;19(12):2178–2185.
12. Gagnon KT, Pendergraff HM, Deleavey GF, Swayze EE, Potier P, Randolph J, Corey DR. (2010). Allele-selective inhibition of mutant huntingtin expression with antisense oligonucleotides concentrating on the expanded CAG repeat. Biochemistry.
13. Skotte NH, Southwell AL, Østergaard ME, Carroll JB, Warby SC, Doty CN, Hayden MR. Allele-specific suppression of mutant huntingtin utilizing antisense oligonucleotides: providing a therapeutic choice for all Huntington illness sufferers. PloS One, 2014;9(9), e107434.
14. Rué L, Bañez-Coronel M, Creus-Muncunill J, Giralt A, Alcalá-Vida R, Mentxaka G, Martí E. Concentrating on CAG repeat RNAs reduces Huntington’s illness phenotype independently of huntingtin ranges. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2016;126(11):4319–4330.
15. Datson NA, González-Barriga A, Kourkouta E, Weij R, van de Giessen J, Mulders S, van Deutekom JCT. The expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene as target for therapeutic RNA modulation all through the HD mouse brain. PloS One, 2017;12(2), e0171127.
16. Miniarikova J, Zanella I, Huseinovic A, van der Zon T, Hanemaaijer E, Martier R, Konstantinova P. (2016). Design, Characterization, and Lead Selection of Therapeutic miRNAs Concentrating on Huntingtin for Improvement of Gene Therapy for Huntington’s Illness. Molecular Remedy. Nucleic Acids. 5, e297.
17. Solar X, Marque LO, Cordner Z, Pruitt, JL, Bhat M, Li PP, Rudnicki DD. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers suppress mutant huntingtin expression and attenuate neurotoxicity. Human Molecular Genetics. 2014;23(23):6302–6317.
18. Mangiarini L, Sathasivam Okay, Vendor M, Cozens B, Harper A, Hetherington C, Bates GP. Exon 1 of the HD Gene with an Expanded CAG Repeat Is Adequate to Trigger a Progressive Neurological Phenotype in Transgenic Mice. Cell. 1996;87(3):493–506.
19. Hodgson JG, Agopyan N, Gutekunst CA, Leavitt BR, LePiane F, Singaraja R, Hayden MR. A YAC Mouse Mannequin for Huntington’s Disease with Full-Length Mutant Huntingtin, Cytoplasmic Toxicity, and Selective Striatal Neurodegeneration. Neuron. 1999;23(1):181–192.
20. Jacobsen JC, Erdin S, Chiang C, Hanscom C, Handley RR, Barker DD, Talkowski ME. (2017). Potential molecular consequences of transgene integration: The R6/2 mouse example OPEN. Nature Publishing Group.
21. Wheeler V, Auerbach W, White JK, Srinidhi J, Auerbach A, Ryan A, MacDonald ME. Size-dependent gametic CAG repeat instability in the Huntington’s disease knock-in mouse. Human Molecular Genetics. 1999;eight(1):115–122.
22. Menalled LB, Sison JD, Dragatsis I, Zeitlin S, Chesselet MF. Time course of early motor and neuropathological anomalies in a knock-in mouse mannequin of Huntington’s disease with 140 CAG repeats. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2003;465(1):11–26.
23. Menalled LB. Knock-in mouse models of Huntington’s disease. NeuroRX. 2005;2(3):465–470.
24. Morton AJ, Glynn D, Leavens W, Zheng Z, Faull RLM, Skepper JN, Wight JM. Paradoxical delay in the onset of illness brought on by super-long CAG repeat expansions in R6/2 mice. Neurobiology of Disease. 2009;33(three):331–341.
25. Lin B, Nasir J, Kalchman MA, Mcdonald H, Zeisler J, Goldberg YP, Hayden MR. Structural evaluation of the 5′ area of mouse and human huntington disease genes reveals conservation of putative promoter area and di- and trinucleotide polymorphisms. Genomics. 1995;25(three):707–715.
26. Jacobsen JC, Bawden CS, Rudiger SR, McLaughlan CJ, Reid SJ, Waldvogel HJ, Snell RG. An ovine transgenic Huntington’s illness model. Human Molecular Genetics. 2010;19(10):1873–1882.
27. Madsen LB, Thomsen B, Sølvsten CAE, Bendixen C, Fredholm M, Jørgensen AL, Nielsen AL. (2007). Identification of the porcine homologous of human disease inflicting trinucleotide repeat sequences. Neurogenetics.
28. Baxa M, Hruska-Plochan M, Juhas S, Vodicka P, Pavlok A, Juhasova J, Motlik J. (2013). A transgenic minipig mannequin of huntington’s illness. Journal of Huntington’s Disease.
29. Yan S, Tu Z, Liu Z, Fan N, Yang H, Yang S, Li, XJ. A Huntingtin Knockin Pig Model Recapitulates Features of Selective Neurodegeneration in Huntington’s Disease. Cell. 2018;173(4):989–1002.e13.
30. McBride JL, Pitzer MR, Boudreau RL, Dufour B, Hobbs T, Ojeda SR, Davidson BL. Preclinical safety of RNAi-mediated HTT suppression in the rhesus macaque as a potential remedy for Huntington’s illness. Molecular Remedy: The Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 2011;19(12):2152–2162.
31. Yang SH, Cheng PH, Banta H, Piotrowska-Nitsche Okay, Yang JJ, Cheng ECH, Chan AWS. In the direction of a transgenic mannequin of Huntington’s disease in a non-human primate. Nature. 2008;453(7197):921–924.

Further studying

Bae, B.-I., Hara, M. R., Cascio, M. B., Wellington, C. L., Hayden, M. R., Ross, C. A., Sawa, A. (2006). Mutant huntingtin: nuclear translocation and cytotoxicity mediated by GAPDH. Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(9), 3405–3409.

Barnes, G. T., Duyao, M. P., Ambrose, C. M., McNeil, S., Persichetti, F., Srinidhi, J., … MacDonald, M. E. (1994). Mouse Huntington’s illness gene homolog (Hdh). Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics, 20(2), 87–97.

Baxendale, S., Abdulla, S., Elgar, G., Buck, D., Berks, M., Micklem, G., … Lehrach, H. (1995). Comparative sequence evaluation of the human and pufferfish Huntington’s disease genes. Nature Genetics, 10(1), 67–76.

Beal, M. F., & Ferrante, R. J. (2004). Experimental therapeutics in transgenic mouse models of Huntington’s illness. Nature Evaluations. Neuroscience, 5(5), 373–384.

Borovecki, F., Lovrecic, L., Zhou, J., Jeong, H., Then, F., Rosas, H. D., … Krainc, D. (2005). Genome-wide expression profiling of human blood reveals biomarkers for Huntington’s illness. Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(31), 11023–11028.

Buraczynska, M. J., van Keuren, M. L., Buraczynska, Okay., Chang, Y. S., Crombez, E., & Kurnit, D. M. (1995). Development of human embryonic cDNA libraries: HD, PKD1 and BRCA1 are transcribed extensively during embryogenesis. Cytogenetic and Genome Analysis, 71(2), 197–202.

Burke, J. R., Enghild, J. J., Martin, M. E., Jou, Y. S., Myers, R. M., Roses, A. D., … Strittmatter, W. J. (1996). Huntingtin and DRPLA proteins selectively interact with the enzyme GAPDH. Nature Drugs, 2(three), 347–350.

Hu, Y., Chopra, V., Chopra, R., Locascio, J. J., Liao, Z., Ding, H., … Scherzer, C. R. (2011). Transcriptional modulator H2A histone household, member Y (H2AFY) marks Huntington illness exercise in man and mouse. Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(41), 17141–17146.

Lin, C.-H., Tallaksen-Greene, S., Chien, W. M., Cearley, J. A., Jackson, W. S., Crouse, A. B., … Detloff, P. J. (2001). Neurological abnormalities in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington’s illness. Human Molecular Genetics, 10(2), 137–144.

Mandich, P., Di Maria, E., Bellone, E., Ajmar, F., & Abbruzzese, G. (1996). Molecular Analysis of the IT15 Gene in Patients with Apparently “Sporadic” Huntington’s Illness. European Neurology, 36(6), 348–352.

Mangiarini, L., Sathasivam, Okay., Vendor, M., Cozens, B., Harper, A., Hetherington, C., … Bates, G. P. (1996). Exon 1 of the HD Gene with an Expanded CAG Repeat Is Enough to Trigger a Progressive Neurological Phenotype in Transgenic Mice. Cell, 87(three), 493–506.

Pouladi, M. A., Morton, A. J., & Hayden, M. R. (n.d.). Selecting an animal mannequin for the research of Huntington’s disease.

Runne, H., Kuhn, A., Wild, E. J., Pratyaksha, W., Kristiansen, M., Isaacs, J. D., … Luthi-Carter, R. (2007). Analysis of potential transcriptomic biomarkers for Huntington’s illness in peripheral blood. Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(36), 14424–14429.

Sadri-Vakili, G., & Cha, J.-H. J. (2006). Mechanisms of illness: Histone modifications in Huntington’s disease. Nature Clinical Apply. Neurology, 2(6), 330–338.

Schadt, E. E., Lamb, J., Yang, X., Zhu, J., Edwards, S., Guhathakurta, D., … Lusis, A. J. (2005). An integrative genomics strategy to deduce causal associations between gene expression and disease. Nature Genetics, 37(7), 710–717.

Schoch, Okay. M., & Miller, T. M. (2017). Antisense Oligonucleotides: Translation from Mouse Models to Human Neurodegenerative Illnesses. Neuron, 94(6), 1056–1070.

Sugars, Okay. L., & Rubinsztein, D. C. (2003). Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington illness. Tendencies in Genetics : TIG, 19(5), 233–238.

von Horsten, S., Schmitt, I., Nguyen, H. P., Holzmann, C., Schmidt, T., Walther, T., … Riess, O. (2003). Transgenic rat model of Huntington’s disease. Human Molecular Genetics, 12(6), 617–624.

Yamamoto, A., Lucas, J. J., & Hen, R. (2000). Reversal of Neuropathology and Motor Dysfunction in a Conditional Mannequin of Huntington’s Disease. Cell, 101(1), 57–66.